Calvinism, Gender Ideology, and Relational Spirituality: An Empirical Investigation of Worldview Differences
- Volume 45
- Spring 2017
- Calvinism, Gender Ideology, and Relational Spirituality: An Empirical Investigation of Worldview Differences
Participants were grouped on the basis of theological beliefs about divine-human and female-male dynamics using cluster analysis. We then explored whether these subgroups might differ on (a) hierarchical social expectations, (b) commitments to social justice and intercultural competence, (c) religious exploration, (d) existential defensiveness, (e) views of psychology – theology integration, and (f) perspectives on women’s leadership. The sample consisted of graduate students (N = 227) at an Evangelical seminary in the Midwestern United States. Results yielded a four-cluster solution. Individuals scoring high on both Calvinist theological beliefs and complementarian gender role beliefs scored significantly higher on hierarchical relationship expectations and existential defensiveness, and preferred a Christian psychology view of integration and a male headship perspective of leadership, compared to those scoring low on Calvinism and complementarianism. In contrast, individuals scoring low on both theological dimensions scored higher on Arminianism, gender egalitarianism, social justice commitment, intercultural competence commitment, religious exploration, and they preferred an integration view of psychology and theology and a “no restrictions” perspective on women’s roles. Findings highlight implications for theological training and spiritual formation.
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