This article seeks to establish the biblical and theological foundations for teamwork and team leadership for ministry practice. In order to understand and evaluate the applicability of a ministry team approach, selected models of team leadership in both the Old and New Testaments are explored. Some biblical concepts including love, unity, and the image of the body, together with concepts such as co-laborer, plurality of leadership, shared leadership, and servant leadership, are also explored. The models and concepts reviewed show key elements and spiritual principles for leading ministry teams. Scriptures clearly depict teamwork through the practice of loving each other and living in the unity of the Spirit to the building up of the body of Christ. Therefore, a ministry team approach structured upon biblical and theological foundations should help the church to work together harmoniously and corporately as intended by Jesus Christ, the founder and head of the Christian church.
To date, the major research efforts on teams and teamwork are found solely in the publications of Larson and LaFasto (1989, 2001) as well as those of Katzenbach and Smith (1993, 2001). This article reviews their major findings and continued research in the last 20 years. Research on effective ministry teams in Christian ministry contexts shows a number of common elements that affirmed both Larson and LaFasto's eight characteristics of effective teams and Katzenbach and Smith's description of effective group fundamentals. Implications for church and parachurch ministries are considered in light of the biblical and theological review in part I, as well as the two major research efforts reviewed in this part II.