Research suggests that one’s perceptions of an ideal leader do not always match one’s perceptions of an ideal woman. The roles are incongruous. This study used a causal-comparative methodology to examine role congruity theory within Protestant evangelical nonprofit organizations in order to discover whether or not role incongruity posed as an obstacle for women leaders. Participants completed one of the seven versions of the revised Descriptive Index, in addition to providing basic demographic information. Similar to previous research, results indicated that role congruity emerged as an obstacle for women. Unlike previous research, role congruity emerged as an issue for men as well. Furthermore, male managers differed more from successful middle managers than did female managers.
KeyWords: Gender, leadership, women leaders, perceptions, gender stereotypes