It is my pleasure to introduce our fifth "Mini-theme" issue of the Christian Education Journal for our readers. Along with our regular articles, this issue has a collection of five articles on issues related to leadership in the church.
The paper explores the theological and historical relationship between clergy and laity to see if a justification exists for a clergy/laity dichotomy. The paper also explores the intent of Reformation theology and traces the development of the clergy/laity dichotomy's impact on the church today. The paper addresses the following questions: Where and with whom does authority rest? What distinguishes clergy leadership from lay leadership? What was Luther's intent in the "priesthood of all believers"? What are the effects of clergy professionalism and theological training of the laity? The paper argues that the biblical perspective of the "people of God" provides a framework to minimize the dichotomy and to move toward a more shared approach to leadership.
Three hundred one executive pastors from Baptist churches with a weekly Sunday school average of at least 1,000 people participated in a study designed to determine correlations between administrative and managerial competency and ministry satisfaction. Correlation testing revealed low, but positive, linear relationships between competency and satisfaction factors. Interpersonal skill and implementation and decision-making skill demonstrated highest statistical significance relative to satisfaction. Self-reported satisfaction levels were high. Age and years in ministry correlated strongest in relation to staffing and controlling competencies. Demographic data produced a representative executive pastor profile. This study extended the heretofore limited research knowledge base for the executive pastor role.
This article seeks to establish the biblical and theological foundations for teamwork and team leadership for ministry practice. In order to understand and evaluate the applicability of a ministry team approach, selected models of team leadership in both the Old and New Testaments are explored. Some biblical concepts including love, unity, and the image of the body, together with concepts such as co-laborer, plurality of leadership, shared leadership, and servant leadership, are also explored. The models and concepts reviewed show key elements and spiritual principles for leading ministry teams. Scriptures clearly depict teamwork through the practice of loving each other and living in the unity of the Spirit to the building up of the body of Christ. Therefore, a ministry team approach structured upon biblical and theological foundations should help the church to work together harmoniously and corporately as intended by Jesus Christ, the founder and head of the Christian church.
To date, the major research efforts on teams and teamwork are found solely in the publications of Larson and LaFasto (1989, 2001) as well as those of Katzenbach and Smith (1993, 2001). This article reviews their major findings and continued research in the last 20 years. Research on effective ministry teams in Christian ministry contexts shows a number of common elements that affirmed both Larson and LaFasto's eight characteristics of effective teams and Katzenbach and Smith's description of effective group fundamentals. Implications for church and parachurch ministries are considered in light of the biblical and theological review in part I, as well as the two major research efforts reviewed in this part II.
Leadership development remains a critical need for our churches, despite all that has been written, conferences that have been attended, and our best efforts. Over claims of either relevancy or expediency, some churches have abandoned higher education and have started training leaders from their own ranks of volunteers. This three-part series suggests that the academy can assist the local church with this need by taking a holistic approach to developing emerging leaders and finding new ways to partner with the local church in the process. The first article (Fall 2009) will briefly review the academy's relationship with the church and address ways to increase a leader's capacity to lead, focusing on the first domain, the leader's heart or character development. The second article (Spring 2010) will examine the next domain of holistic development, the leader's knowledge. It will seek to answer the question, "What do ministry leaders need to know and where should it be learned?" The third article focuses on the final domain-skills. The expected abilities of ministry leaders will be discussed. All three articles will consider the implications to the curriculum and suggested church involvement.
Ministerial formation is an essential function of Christian education. Its goal is for ministers and their families to experience a lifetime of fruitful service. When formation does not take into account forces of deformation commonly experienced in ministry, the result is malformation that leads to failure under stress with devastating consequences. Statistics suggest that ministers are not adequately prepared to handle common stressors encountered in ministry environments. At least four common stressors in ministry should be addressed in curricular design for ministerial formation to build a "firewall" of protection for ministers and their families to ensure better long-term outcomes.
What should be the proper role of prayer in sport? The purpose of this article is to examine prayer and sport and to offer recommendations based on the notion of spiritual maturity. The Christian athlete, I argue, should strive towards maturity with respect to prayer, as evidenced by the fruit of the Spirit in his or her life.
This research considered whether or not the frequency of Bible teaching relates to attachment relationships between teens and their youth-workers. Bible study and attachment were also considered relative to their relationships to adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Teaching teenagers from the Bible coincides with youth-workers cultivating more successful attachment relationships with young people. Those taught most frequently, demonstrated higher levels of attachment relationships. Bible teaching and adolescent attachment to a youth-worker also related to a teenager feeling less lonely.
This study examined to what extent college students' attachment to their parents affected their relationship with God by investigating 206 Korean-American and 95 Chinese-American college students in the Dallas and Austin areas (n=301). Students completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI). Results showed that students with low attachment to their parents displayed more instability and disappointment in their relationships with God than students with high attachment. Highly attached students, however, showed a high level of awareness of God's presence in their lives and a positive self-image in religious lives.
This article reviews two studies that were conducted in two very different eras of recent history: 1950 and the beginning of the 21st century. The participants in the two studies cannot be statistically compared, as the first study focused on young adults ages 18-??29, and the more recent study examined the beliefs and attitudes of high school youth between 13 and 17. The early study was a regional study conducted in New York City and the surrounding area, while the newer study was national in scope. What the two studies share is a similar goal, which was to better understand the religious beliefs of young people. What the findings from the two studies reveal might be considered a wake-up call for Christian educators. Perhaps these two dissimilar studies may document evidence of a trend in the Christian community-that many Christians do not know how to integrate faith into their daily lives. Perhaps even more troubling is the possibility that many do not even realize that this goal is desirable in living a spiritually mature life. One is forced to ponder if this lack of faith integration is a symptom of adolescence or a reflection of current culture.
Kingdom triangle: Recover the Christian mind, renovate the soul, restore the Spirit’s power. By J.P. Moreland. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. 2007. 237 pp. $19.99.
Review by Linda Mayes, Director of Career Development, Northwestern College, St. Paul,MN.
Review by Kevin T. Grant, Director of The Learning Center, Biola University, La Mirada, CA.
Review by Faustin Ntamushobora, Executive Director, TLAfrica, Inc. (www.tlafrica.org), Nairobi, Kenya.
Review by Klaus Issler, Professor of Christian Education and Theology, Talbot School of Theology, La Mirada, CA.
Teaching kids authentic worship: How to keep them close to God for life. By Kathleen Chapman. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker. 2003.
Review by Lisa Milligan Long, Assistant Professor of Christian Education, Lee University, Cleveland, TN.
Unchristian:What a new generation really thinks about Christianity. By David Kinnaman (and Gabe Lyons and Fermi Project). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books. 2007.
Review by Julie A. Gorman, Professor of Christian Formation and Discipleship, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, CA.
Teaching that transforms:Worship as the heart of Christian education. By Debra Dean Murphy.Grand Rapids,MI: Brazos Press. 2004.
Review by Mark A. Maddix, Associate Professor of Christian Education, Northwest Nazarene University, Nampa, ID.
The teacher’s craft: The 10 essential skills of effective teaching. By Paul Chance. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. 2008. 187pp.
Review by Octavio J. Esqueda, Assistant Professor of Foundations, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, TX.
Lasting impressions: From visiting to belonging. By Mark Waltz. Loveland, CO: Group Publishing. 2009.
Review by Cheryl Fawcett, Association of Baptists for World Evangelism, Vision For Youth International, El Cajon, CA.
The missing ministry: Safety, risk management, and protecting your church. By The Guide One Center for RiskManagement. Loveland, CO: Group Publishing. 2008.
Review by Dawn R.Morton, Adjunct Professor of Christian Education, Ashland Theological Seminary, Ashland, OH
Real power: Stages of personal power in organizations (3rd ed.). By Janet O. Hagberg. Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company. 2003.
Review by Halee Gray Scott, Adjunct Faculty, Haggard Graduate School of Theology, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA.
Introduction to leadership: Concepts and practice. By Peter G. Northouse. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 2009.
Review by Keith R. Krispin Jr., Department of Christian Ministries, Judson University, Elgin, IL.
Reverse mentoring: How young leaders can transform the church and why we should let them. By Earl Creps. San Francisco, CA:
Review by Rick Thoman, Associate Professor, Christian Ministries, Northwestern College, St Paul, MN.
Leading cross-culturally: Covenant relationships for effective Christian leadership. By Sherwood G. Lingenfelter. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. 2008.
Review by Seong Eun Kim, doctoral student at Talbot School of Theology.